PENERAPAN MODEL NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM) DALAM REFORMASI BIROKRASI DI INDONESIA

  • sri hartati IPDN
Keywords: New Public Management, Bureaucracy, Bureaucracy Reform

Abstract

ABSTRAK

 

Reformasi politik dan pemerintahan tahun 1998 yang diharapkan sejalan  dengan reformasi birokrasi pemerintahan belum terwujud, diindikasikan dengan pelayanan publik (public service) belum optimal, kinerja ASN masih rendah, kasus Korupsi, Kolusi dan Nepotisme (KKN) masih menjadi penyakit kronis baik dikalangan eksekutif maupun legislatif bahkan sudah merambah sampai ke level pemerintahan terdepan yakni desa. Berdasarkan data Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) tahun 2020, Indeks Persepsi Korupsi Indonesia menempati posisi 85 dari 180 Negara, Sementara di tingkat ASEAN, posisi Indonesia  menempati posisi keempat, masih dibawah Singapura, Brunei Darussalam dan Malaysia. Kondisi ini menunjukkan  birokrasi  di Indonesia belum dapat menciptakan tata kelola pemerintahan yang baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan paradigma birokrasi, pelaksanaan reformasi birokrasi dan bagaimana upaya penerapan New Public Management (NPM) dalam reformasi birokrasi di Indonesia.

Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi. Penelitian ini menganalisis bagaimana paradigama birokrasi, pelaksanaan agenda Reformasi Birokrasi dan penerapan  NPM di di Indonesia.   Data penelitian  dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan teknik studi dokumentasi dan observasi.Teknik analisis data dilakukan dengan reduksi data, penyajian data dan penarikan kesimpulan.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari perjalanan sejarah birokrasi di Indonesia mulai zaman kerajaan, masa kolonial, “Orde Lama dan Orde Baru, tidak dirancang untuk memberikan pelayanan kepada masyarakat,akan tetapi sepenuhnya mengabdi pada kepentingan kekuasaan” pada masanya. Meskipun berbagai regulasi Reformasi Birokrasi diterbitkan, akan tetapi samapi fase ketiga good governance belum terwujud. Penerapan konsep NPM  di Indonesia belum dapat diterapkan oleh seluruh lembaga/Instansi Pemerintah. Berbagai kendala yang dihadapi antara lain: perekonomian didominasi perusahaan asing,privatisasi terkendala kondisi market yang belum cukup stabil, korupsi meningkat, sistem kontrak memicu korupsi dan politisasi dan struktur kelembagaan pemerintah yang miskin fungsi kaya struktur.

 

Kata Kunci :New Public Management,  Birokrasi, Reformasi Birokrasi

 

ABSTRACT

 

           

               Political and government reforms in 1998 which are expected to be in line with government bureaucratic reforms have not yet been realized, it is indicated that public service is not optimal, ASN performance is still low, cases of corruption, collusion and nepotism (KKN) are still a chronic disease both among the executive and legislative branches. it has even penetrated to the foremost level of government, namely the village. Based on data from the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) in 2020, Indonesia's Corruption Perception Index ranks 85 out of 180 countries, while at the ASEAN level, Indonesia's position is in fourth position, still below Singapore, Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. This condition shows that the bureaucracy in Indonesia has not been able to create good governance. This study aims to describe the bureaucratic paradigm, the implementation of bureaucratic reform and how the efforts to implement New Public Management (NPM) in bureaucratic reform in Indonesia.               This study used a qualitative descriptive method with a phenomenological approach. This research analyzes how the bureaucratic paradigm, the implementation of the Bureaucratic Reform agenda and the application of NPM in Indonesia. The research data were collected using documentation and observation study techniques. Data analysis techniques were carried out by data reduction, data presentation and drawing conclusions.               The results show that from the history of the bureaucracy in Indonesia, starting from the kingdom era, colonial period, the Old Order and the New Order, it was never designed to provide services to the community, but the bureaucracy fully served the interests of power in its time. Even though various regulations on Bureaucratic Reform were issued, but until the third phase of good governance has not been realized. The application of the NPM concept in Indonesia has not been implemented by all government agencies / agencies. Various obstacles faced include: the economy is dominated by foreign companies, privatization is constrained by unstable market conditions, increased corruption, the contract system has triggered corruption and politicization and the government institutional structure is poor in structure-rich functions.

 

 

 

 

Keywords: New Public Management, Bureaucracy, Bureaucracy Reform

Published
2020-12-30
Section
Articles