Nuzula Anggeraini
Yeremias T. Keban
Jun Matsunami


Border regions are geographically presented with potential economic benefits. However, some of these areas have not been able to take advantage of their strategic geographic locality. This is also the case for border areas in Indonesia. There is a spectrum of perceptions by stakeholders on how border regions, particularly international borders, should be developed. This study sought to capture the perspectives of Indonesian stakeholders on border region development, and the extent of influence such perspectives have in the policy of border areas development with a case study in West Southeast Maluku The research was conducted using qualitative method with in-depth interviews as the primary collecting data technique. The results show that despite perceptions of stakeholders who view West Southeast Maluku as an area of insecurity, they also see the potential of the area to be developed as a gateway, area of opportunity, zone of contacts and zone of cooperation. However, the current policies and strategies of the development of border areas do not exemplify such perceptions, and the formulation of such policies is likely to be dominated by state-level stakeholders, despite the fact that local level stakeholders have a more comprehensive understanding of the needs of their areas.


Author Biographies

Nuzula Anggeraini, Master Program in Urban and Regional Planning, Department of Architecture and Planning, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada


Yeremias T. Keban, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada


Jun Matsunami, Graduate School of International Cooperation Studies-Kobe University

How to Cite
Anggeraini, N., Keban, Y., & Matsunami, J. (2019). Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Border Region Development: West Southeast Maluku, Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan Widya Praja, 44(1), 61 - 80. https://doi.org/10.33701/jipwp.v44i1.251


Arieli, T. (2012). Borders of Peace in Policy and Practice: National and Local Perspectives of Israel-Jordan Border Management. Geopolitics, 17(3), 658–680. http://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2011.638015
Bappeda of West Southeast Maluku Regency. (2007). Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang Daerah Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara Barat Tahun 2007-2027 [The Regional Long-Term Development Plan 2007-2027]
Bappeda of West Southeast Maluku Regency. (2017). Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Daerah Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara Barat Tahun 2017-2022 [The Regional Middle-Term Development Plan 2017-2022]
Bappenas. (2014). Berita Acara Pra-Musrenbang Bappenas Tahun 2014 [Bappenas Pre-National Development Plan Forum Agreement Report 2014]
Blatter, J. (2001). Active cross-border regions: institutional dynamics and institution building. In M. v. Geenhuizen & R. Ratti (Eds.), Gaining advantage from open borders. An active space approach to regional development (pp. 257–283). Aldershot: Ashgate
BNPP. (2011). Rencana Induk Pengelolaan Batas Wilayah Negara dan Kawasan Perbatasan Tahun 2011-2014 [Master Plan of State Borders and Border Area Management 2011-2014]
BNPP. (2015). Rencana Induk Pengelolaan Perbatasan Negara Tahun 2015-2019 [Master Plan of Border Area Management 2015-2019]
Capello, R., Caragliu, A., & Fratesi, U. (2018). Compensation modes of border effects in cross-border regions. Journal of Regional Science, (May 2017), 759–785. http://doi.org/10.1111/jors.12386
Carter, D. B., & Goemans, H. E. (2018). International trade and coordination: Tracing border effects. World Politics, 70(1), 1–52. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0043887117000284
Côté-Boucher, K., Infantino, F., & Salter, M. B. (2014). Border security as practice: An agenda for research. Security Dialogue, 45(3), 195–208. doi: 10.1177/0967010614533243
Diener, A. C., & Hagen, J. (2012). Borders: A Very Short Introduction. Gosport: Oxford University Press. http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Duarte Alonso, A., & Nyanjom, J. (2017). Local stakeholders, role and tourism development. Current Issues in Tourism, 20(5), 480–496. http://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2015.1078782
Erdianto, K. (2018, January 25). Tahun 2018, TNI Akan Prioritaskan Keamanan di Wilayah Timur Indonesia [In 2018, Indonesian Armed Forces Will Prioritize Security in Eastern Indonesia] . Kompas.com. Retrieved June 16, 2018, from https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2018/01/25/17182111/tahun-2018-tni-akan-prioritaskan-keamanan-di-wilayah-timur-indonesia
Friedman, A. L., & Miles, S. (2006). Stakeholders: Theory and practice. New York: Oxford University Press
Fullerton, T. M., González Monzón, A., & Walke, A. G. (2013). Physical Infrastructure and Economic Growth in El Paso. Economic Development Quarterly, 27(4), 363–373. http://doi.org/10.1177/0891242413489168
Geenhuizen, M. van, & Rietveld, P. (2002). Land-borders and sea-borders: An exploration of differences in border region development. Journal of Borderlands Studies, 17(2), 63–77. http://doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2002.9695591
Gerlak, A. K., & Mukhtarov, F. (2016). Many Faces of Security: Discursive Framing in Cross-border Natural Resource Governance in the Mekong River Commission. Globalizations, 13(6), 719–740. http://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2015.1134133
Ghosh, S., Ibarrarán, M. E., Willett, K. D., & Sanchez Torres Esqueda, G. (2017). Water allocation and management along the Santa Cruz border region. Water Resources and Economics, 19(September), 1–17. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wre.2017.09.004
Gravelle, T. B. (2018). Politics, time, space, and attitudes toward US–Mexico border security. Political Geography, 65(1), 107–116. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2018.05.012
Hanson, G. H. (2001). U.S. - Mexico integration and regional economies: Evidence from border-city pairs. Journal of Urban Economics, 50(2), 259–287. http://doi.org/10.1006/juec.2001.2217
Havranek, T., & Irsova, Z. (2017). Do Borders Really Slash Trade? A Meta-Analysis. IMF Economic Review (Vol. 65). Palgrave Macmillan UK. http://doi.org/10.1057/s41308-016-0001-5
Indonesia Restores Military Ties With Australia After Latest Neighbourly Dispute. (2017, January 6). The Conversation. Retrieved April 28, 2018, from http://theconversation.com/indonesia-restores-military-ties-with-australia-after-latest-neighbourly-dispute-70913
Indonesian Statistic Bureau. (2017). Maluku Tenggara Barat Dalam Angka Tahun 2017 [West Southeast Maluku in Figure 2017]. Retrieved from https://mtbkab.bps.go.id/publication/2017/08/11/ac540c712014a011161548bc/kabupaten-maluku-tenggara-barat-dalam-angka-2017.html
Indonesian Statistic Bureau. (2017). Index Pembangunan Manusia 2016 [Human Development Index of Maluku Province 2016]. Retrieved from https://maluku.bps.go.id/publication/2017/11/10/f8026a9e93d87504ad2054ba/indeks-pembangunan-manusia-provinsi-maluku-2016.html
Inpex Corporation. (2017, June 30). Abadi LNG Project. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from https://www.inpex.co.jp/english/business/indonesia.html
Jacobs, J. (2016). Spatial planning in cross-border regions : A systems-theoretical perspective. Planning Theory, 15(1) 68–9. doi: 10.1177/1473095214547149
Kawasan Blok Masela Rawan Diklaim Australia [The Area of Masela Block is Prone to be Claimed by Australia]. (2016, January 2). Jakarta Greater Forum Militer. Retrieved April 28, 2018, from https://jakartagreater.com/kawasan-blok-masela-rawan-diklaim-australia/
Keputusan Menteri Kelautan dan Perikanan Nomor 51/KEPMEN-KP/2016 tentang Penetapan Lokasi Pembangunan Sentra Kelautan dan Perikanan Terpadu di Pulau-Pulau Kecil dan Kawasan Perbatasan [Decree of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries No. 51/KEPMEN-KP/2016 on the Stipulation of the Development Sites of Coordinated Marine and Fisheries Centres in Small and Outermost Islands]
Köck, R., Siemer, P., Esser, J., Kampmeier, S., Berends, M., Glasner, C., … Friedrich, A. (2018). Defining Multidrug Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria in the Dutch–German Border Region—Impact of National Guidelines. Microorganisms, 6(1), 11. http://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6010011
Komppula, R. (2016). The role of different stakeholders in destination development. Tourism Review, 71(1), 67–76. http://doi.org/10.1108/TR-06-2015-0030
Massa, A. (2018). Borders and boundaries as resources for mobility. Multiple regimes of mobility and incoherent trajectories on the Ethiopian-Eritrean border. Geoforum, (May 2017), 1–10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2018.01.007
Mirwaldt, K. (2010). Contact, conflict and geography: What factors shape cross-border citizen relations? Political Geography, 29(8), 434–443. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2010.10.004
Muta’ali, L. (2014). Pengembangan kawasan perbatasan [Border area development]. Yogyakarta: Badan Penerbit Fakultas Geografi UGM
Novak, P. (2016). Placing borders in development. Geopolitics, 21(3), 483–512. http://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2015.1118378
Orr, S. K. (2014). Environmental policymaking and stakeholder collaboration. Boca Raton: CRC Press
Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 43 Tahun 2015 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Kementerian Dalam Negeri [Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 43 of 2015 on Organization and Working Procedures of Ministry of Home Affairs]. Retrieved from http://www.kemendagri.go.id/produk-hukum/2015/04/30/organisasi-dan-tata-kerja-kementerian-dalam-negeri
Peraturan Menteri Kelautan dan Perikanan Nomor 6/PERMEN-KP/2017 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan [Regulation of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries No. 6/PERMEN-KP/2017 on Organization and Working Procedures of Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries]. Retrieved from http://jdih.kkp.go.id/peraturan/1-6-permen-kp-2017-ttg-otk-kkp.pdf
Peraturan Menteri Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/Kepala Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional Nomor 6 Tahun 2017 tentang Perubahan Atas Peraturan Menteri Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/Kepala Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional Nomor 4 Tahun 2016 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional [Regulation of Minister of National Development Planning No. 6 of 2017 on the Amendment of the Regulation of Minister of National Development Planning on Organization and Working Procedures of National Development Planning Agency]. Retrieved from http://birohukum.bappenas.go.id/data/data_permen/Salinan-Peraturan-Menteri-PPN-6-Tahun-2017.pdf
Peraturan Menteri Pertahanan Nomor 2 Tahun 2017 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Kementerian Pertahanan [Regulation of the Minister of Defense No. 2 of 2017 on Organization and Working Procedures of Ministry of Defense]. Retrieved from https://www.kemhan.go.id/itjen/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/bn444-2017.pdf
Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 50 Tahun 2011 tentang Rencana Induk Pembangunan Kepariwisataan Nasional Tahun 2010-2025 [Government Act No. 50/2011 on the 2010-2025 Masterplan of National Tourism Development]
Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 12 Tahun 2010 tentang Badan Nasional Pengelola Perbatasan [Presidential Decree No. 12 of 2010 on National Border Management Agency]
Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 33 Tahun 2015 tentang Rencana Tata Ruang Kawasan Perbatasan Negara di Provinsi Maluku [Presidential Decree No. 33 of 2015 on the Indonesian State Border Area Spatial Plan in Maluku]. Retrieved from http://www.bnpp.go.id/document/produk_hukum/2015/perpres_no_33_tahun_2015.pdf
Puspen TNI. (2017, May 19). Dandim Madiun Berikan Materi Kuliah Umum di Politeknik Negeri Madiun [Dandim Madiun Gave a Public Lecture in Poliytecnic of Madiun] . Retrieved June 16, 2018, from https://tni.mil.id/view-113381-dandim-madiun-berikan-materi-kuliah-umum-di-politeknik-negeri-madiun.html
Puspen TNI. (2017, January 25). Danramil 0906-03/Loa Janan Berikan Sosialisasi Ancaman Global [Danramil 0906-03/Loa Janan Gave a Discourse on the Global Threat]. Retrieved June 16, 2018, from https://tni.mil.id/view-108291-danramil-0906-03loa-janan-berikan-sosialisasi-ancaman-global.html
Salter, M. B. (2012). Theory of the / : The suture and critical border studies. Geopolitics, 17(4), 734–755. doi: 10.1080/14650045.2012.660580
Silva, G. de V. (2017). France-Brazil Cross-border Cooperation Strategies: Experiences and Perspectives on Migration and Trade. Journal of Borderlands Studies, 32(3), 325–343. http://doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2016.1197788
Studzinska, D., & Domaniewski, S. (2016). The Border as a Resource for the Development of Borderland: a Comparative Analysis of Two Polish Urban Centres At the External Border of the European Union. Quaestiones Geographicae, 35(4), 145–155. http://doi.org/10.1515/-quageo-2016-0042
Sugiyono. (2015). Metode penelitian manajemen, pendekatan: 1. Kuantitatif 2. Kualitatif 3. Kombinasi (Mixed Methods) 4. Penelitian Tindakan (Action Research) 5. Penelitian Evaluasi [Research methods of management, approach: 1. Quantitative 2. Qualitative 3. Mixed Methods 4. Action Research 5. Evaluation Research]. Bandung: Alfabeta
Todaro, M. P. & Smith, S. C. (2012). Economic development, 11th Edition. Boston: Addison Wesley
Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah [Law No. 23 of 2014 on the Local Government Act]
Williams, J. M. (2016). The safety/security nexus and the humanitarianisation of border enforcement. Geographical Journal, 182(1), 27–37. http://doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12119
Wu, C. T. (2001). Cross-border development in a changing world: Redefining regional development policies. In D. W. Edington, A. L. Fernandez, & C. Hoshino (Eds.), New regional development paradigms, Vol. 2 (pp. 21–38). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press